The recent announcement from the National Geographic on the 8th June 2021 that the Southern Ocean will be recognised as the world’s fifth ocean, alongside the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian and Arctic, has caused quite a stir amongst scientists who have specialised their research in this unique and mesmerising environment. The reason for this is that Continue Reading

In situ observations of open ocean (and in particular the Southern Ocean) turbulent mixing are sparse and remain one of the ‘holy grails’ of Oceanography. Ocean fronts and eddies are hotspots for raised turbulent mixing, however, it is extremely intermittent and thus difficult to observe. The passage of strong atmospheric storms are thought to further enhance Continue Reading

By Sarah Gille, Simon Josey, and Seb Swart: EOS article 13 May 2016 https://eos.org/meeting-reports/new-approaches-for-air-sea-fluxes-in-the-southern-ocean Air-sea exchanges in the Southern Ocean of momentum, heat, freshwater, carbon dioxide, and other gases are not well documented because fluxes are sparsely sampled (see Figure 1) and because high winds, high sea state, and lack of calibration for bulk formulas make Continue Reading