The Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean is characterized by markedly different frontal zones with specific seasonal and sub-seasonal dynamics. Demonstrated here is the effect of iron on the potential maximum productivity rates of the phytoplankton community. A series of iron addition productivity versus irradiance (PE) experiments utilizing a unique experimental design that allowed forRead More..

Traditionally, the mechanism driving the seasonal restratification of the Southern Ocean mixed layer (ML) is thought to be the onset of springtime warming. Recent developments in numerical modelling and North Atlantic observations have shown that submesoscale ML eddies (MLE) can drive a restratifying flux to shoal the deep winter ML prior to solar heating atRead More..

The Southern Ocean forms a key component of the global carbon budget, taking up about 1.0 Pg C yr−1 of anthropogenic CO2 emitted annually (∼10.7 ± 0.5 Pg C yr−1 for 2012). However, despite its importance, it still remains undersampled with respect to surface ocean carbon flux variability, resulting in weak constraints for ocean carbon and carbonRead More..