Central to the Southern Ocean’s role in setting atmospheric CO2 is the seasonal alternation between upward mixing of nutrients and their subsequent consumption by phytoplankton. Active nutrient cycling within the mixed layer, including the release of ammonium (NH4+) and its removal by phytoplankton and nitrifiers, also affects Southern Ocean CO2 drawdown, yet remains poorly understood. We conductedRead More..

The physical and biogeochemical controls of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a  central motivation for this chapter, which identifies biogeochemical feedbacks that have led or could lead to a  future acceleration, slowdown or abrupt transitions in the rate of GHG accumulation in the atmosphere, and therefore of climate change. A  characterization of the trends and feedbacksRead More..