Ansorge I. J., Jackson, J., Reid, K., Durgadoo, J., Swart S., Eberenz, S.
Abstract

Mesoscale eddies and meanders have been shown to be one of the dominant sources of flow variability in the world’s ocean. One example of an isolated eddy hotspot is the South-West Indian Ridge (SWIR). Several investigations have shown that the SWIR and the corresponding planetary potential vorticity field (f/H) exert a strong influence on the location and dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), resulting in substantial fragmentation of the jets downstream of the ridge. The easterly extension of this eddy corridor appears to be restricted to the deep channel separating the Conrad Rise from the Del Cano and Crozet Plateau. However, while the fate of eddies formed at the SWIR has been widely investigated and the frontal character of this eastward extension is well known, the zone of diminishing variability that extends southwards to approximately 60S remains poorly sampled. Using a combination of Argo, AVISO and NCEP/NCAR datasets, the character of this eddy corridor as a conduit for warm core eddies to move across the ACC into the Antarctic zone is investigated. In this study, we track a single warm-core eddy as it moves southwards from an original position of 31E, 50 20′ S to where it dissipates 10 months later in the Enderby Basin at 561200 S. An Argo float entrained within the eddy confirms that its water masses are consistent with water found within the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone north of the APF. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are on average 8 W/m2 and 10 W/m2 greater over the eddy than directly east of this feature. It is estimated that the eddy lost an average of 5 W/m2 of latent heat and 5 W/m2 of sensible heat over a 1-year period, an amount capable of melting approximately 0.92 m of sea ice. In addition, using an eddy tracking algorithm a total of 28 eddies are identified propagating southwards, 25 of which are anti-cyclonic in rotation. Based on the new Argo float data, combined with AVISO and NCEP/NCAR datasets, these results suggest that the southward passage of warm-core eddies act as vehicles transporting heat, salt and biota southwards across the ACC and into the eastern boundary of the Weddell gyre.

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Sea surface height variability for the period 2000-2009. The trajectory of a positive anomaly is identified with a solid black line

Sea surface height variability for the period 2000-2009. The trajectory of a positive anomaly is identified with a solid black line

Macey, A.I., Ryan-Keogh T J, Richier, S., Moore, C.M., Bibby, T.S.
Abstract

Iron availability influences phytoplankton physiology and growth over more than one-third of the surface oceans, with recent evidence even indicating iron stress during and following the latter stages of the spring bloom in the high latitude North Atlantic. The mechanistic basis of the phytoplankton physiological responses used for diagnosing iron stress and the broader ecophysiological consequences of iron stress within natural phytoplankton communities still remain unclear. We describe photosynthetic macromolecular and physiological responses of natural phytoplankton communities both in situ and within factorial nutrient-addition (iron and nitrogen) experiments over a seasonal growth cycle in the subpolar North Atlantic. The abundance of quantified photosynthetic proteins increased under relief of iron stress, with the synthesis of the associated protein catalytic complexes accounting for, ~ 3% of inorganic nitrogen drawdown. However, no significant differences in the stoichiometries of the photosynthetic complexes were observed, suggesting that re-modeling of the photosynthetic electron transport chain was not a significant influence on the community-level ecophysiological responses to iron stress. In marked contrast, iron stress resulted in significant increases in the cellular ratios of chlorophyll to the photosynthetic catalysts, including photosystem II (PSII), alongside a marked increase in PSII normalized chlorophyll fluorescence. Characteristic depressions in apparent photosynthetic energy conversion efficiencies in iron-limited oceanic regions are thus likely driven by a significant accumulation of partially energetically uncoupled chlorophyll-binding complexes. Such iron-stress–induced chlorophyll-binding proteins may contribute, ~ 40% of the total chlorophyll pool during iron-stressed periods.

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Macey-paper-fig

Incubation Experiment 4 (IE4) is shown as a typical example of the response of the phytoplankton community to the addition of Fe (white symbols) in relation to control samples (black symbols). (a–c) changes in the apparent photochemistry of PSII (Fv : Fm), chlorophyll a (μg L-1), and nitrate concentrations (μmol L-1). (d–f) changes in Fm normalized to chlorophyll (Fm : Chl), and accumulation of the peptide PsbA (a subunit of the photosynthetic complex PSII) normalized to total protein (fmol (μg protein)-1) and as total molar concentration (pmol L-1). a.u., arbitrary units.

Swart S., Liu, J., Bhaskar, P., Newman, L., Finney, K., Meredith, M., Schofield, O.
Abstract

The first Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) Asian Workshop was successfully held in Shanghai, China in May 2013, attracting over 40 participants from six Asian nations and widening exposure to the objectives and plans of SOOS. The workshop was organized to clarify Asian research activities currently taking place in the Southern Ocean and to discuss, amongst other items, the potential for collaborative efforts with and between Asian countries in SOOS-related activities. The workshop was an important mechanism to initiate discussion, understanding and collaborative avenues in the Asian domain of SOOS beyond current established efforts. Here we present some of the major outcomes of the workshop covering the principle themes of SOOS and attempt to provide a way forward to achieve a more integrated research community, enhance data collection and quality, and guide scientific strategy in the Southern Ocean.

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Map of the Southern Ocean and approximate location of regular shipping transects maintained by Asian nations.

Map of the Southern Ocean and approximate location of regular shipping transects maintained by Asian nations.

Liu, J., Swart S., Bhaskar, P., Newman, L., Meredith, M., Schofield, O., Jianfeng, HE.
Abstract

SOOS must be a fully integrated and coordinated international system with infrastructure, resources and investment from all nations involved in the Southern Ocean research and observations. This was the motivation behind the organization of the SOOS Asian workshop. The objective of the SOOS Asian Workshop was to highlight the activities of Asian countries currently engaged in Southern Ocean research and observations relevant to the SOOS science strategy, and to stimulate discussion and foster further involvement from Asian countries in the SOOS activities.

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The Southern Ocean Observing System

The Southern Ocean Observing System

Tagliabue, A., Sallee, J. B., Bowie, A. R., Levy M., Swart S., Boyd. P. W.
Abstract

Low levels of iron limit primary productivity across much of the Southern Ocean. At the basin scale, most dissolved iron is supplied to surface waters from subsurface reservoirs, because land inputs are spatially limited. Deep mixing in winter together with year-round diffusion across density surfaces, known as diapycnal diffusion, are the main physical processes that carry iron-laden subsurface waters to the surface. Here, we analyse data on dissolved iron concentrations in the top 1,000 m of the Southern Ocean, taken from all known and available cruises to date, together with hydrographic data to determine the relative importance of deep winter mixing and diapycnal diffusion to dissolved iron fluxes at the basin scale. Using information on the vertical distribution of iron we show that deep winter mixing supplies ten times more iron to the surface ocean each year, on average, than diapycnal diffusion. Biological observations from the sub-Antarctic sector suggest that following the depletion of this wintertime iron pulse, intense iron recycling sustains productivity over the subsequent spring and summer. We conclude that winter mixing and surface-water iron recycling are important drivers of temporal variations in Southern Ocean primary production.

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A schematic representation of the seasonal variability in Southern Ocean Fe cycling

A schematic representation of the seasonal variability in Southern Ocean Fe cycling

Domingues, R., Goni, G., Swart S., Dong, S.
Abstract

The variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) system is largely linked to the atmospheric forcing. The objective of this work is to assess the link between local wind forcing mechanisms and the variability of the upper-ocean temperature and the dynamics of the different fronts in the ACC region south of South Africa. To accomplish this, in situ and satellite-derived observations are used between 1993 and 2010. The main finding of this work is that meridional changes in the westerlies linked with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) drive temperature anomalies in the Ekman layer and changes in the Subantarctic Front (SAF) and Antarctic Polar Front (APF) transports through Ekman dynamics. The development of easterly anomalies between 35°S and 45°S during positive SAM is linked to reduced (increased) SAF (APF) transports and a warmer mixed layer in the ACC. The link between the changes in the wind stress and the SAF and APF transport variations occurs through the development of Ekman pumping anomalies near the frontal boundaries, driving an opposite response on the SAF and APF transports. The observed wind-driven changes in the frontal transports suggest small changes to the net ACC transport. In addition, observations indicate that the SAF and APF locations in this region are not linked to the local wind forcing, emphasizing the importance of other factors (e.g., baroclinic instabilities generated by bottom topography) to changes in the frontal location. Results obtained here highlight the importance of repeat XBT temperature sections and their combined analysis with other in situ and remote sensing observations.

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Ekman pumping anomalies during periods of (a) extreme negative and of (b) extreme positive SAM in the Southern Ocean.

Ekman pumping anomalies during periods of (a) extreme negative and of (b) extreme positive SAM in the Southern Ocean.

Hutchinson, K., Swart S., Ansorge I. J., Goni, G.
Abstract

Hydrographic data from three research cruises, occupying the GoodHope line in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, are used to identify and quantify Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT) temperature biases. A set of 148 collocated XBT and CTD stations, separated by a maximum distance of <12.5 nm and <10 h, are used in this study. A subset of these comparisons is also investigated. This subset consists of 24 simultaneous pairs where the XBT and CTD stations are within 2.5 nm and 2 h of one another. These simultaneous pairs are extremely rare in XBT bias experiments and provide data set to assess, in deeper detail, the behaviour of the bias. The net bias, which is a product of both the depth offset and the pure thermal bias, is investigated with depth per frontal zone for both the collocated and simultaneous comparisons and found to be on the whole positive, meaning warmer XBT readings compared to the CTD values at each depth. The total mean bias for all collocated pairs was found to be 0.101 +/- 0.024 1C, and for the simultaneous subset the net bias had a mean value of 0.130 +/- 0.064C. An investigation into the magnitude of the depth offset was also undertaken, exposing generally positive depth biases, thereby indicating an overestimation of depth by the fall rate equation. A sizeable variation in bias between frontal zones is observed, along with an expected increase of net bias in regions of steeper temperature gradient. The contribution of the pure thermal bias is explored and found to be comparatively small yet still sizeable (mean bias = 0.053 +/- 0.063C). Results found in this study further support the hypothesis of the regional dependence of the XBT fall rate on water temperature, and thus water viscosity. In addition, results obtained here highlight the need to develop an XBT bias correction scheme specifically appropriate to the Southern Ocean.

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Mean net temperature bias with depth for (a) collocated pairs and (b) direct comparisons. The standard deviations are illustrated with grey shading, the solid back line is the mean bias and the dashed black line is the full-depth mean bias.

Mean net temperature bias with depth for (a) collocated pairs and (b) direct comparisons. The standard deviations are illustrated with grey shading, the solid back line is the mean bias and the dashed black line is the full-depth mean bias.

Achterberg, E.P., Moore, C.M., Henson, S.A., Steigenberger, S., Stohl, A., Eckhardt, S., Avendano, L.C., Cassidy, M., Hembury, D., Lucas M., Ryan-Keogh T J, Et al.
Abstract

Aerosol deposition from the 2010 eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull resulted in significant dissolved iron (DFe) inputs to the Iceland Basin of the North Atlantic. Unique ship-board measurements indicated strongly enhanced DFe concentrations (up to 10 nM) immediately under the ash plume. Bioassay experiments performed with ash collected at sea under the plume also demonstrated the potential for associated Fe release to stimulate phytoplankton growth and nutrient drawdown. Combining Fe dissolution measurements with modeled ash deposition suggested that the eruption had the potential to increase DFe by > 0.2 nM over an area of up to 570,000 km2 . Although satellite ocean color data only indicated minor increases in phytoplankton abundance over a relatively constrained area, comparison of in situ nitrate concentrations with historical records suggested that ash deposition may have resulted in enhanced major nutrient drawdown. Our observations thus suggest that the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption resulted in a significant perturbation to the biogeochemistry of the Iceland Basin.

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fig3_depo

(a) Modeled DFe enhancement (nM) as a result of ash deposition (15 April to 23 May) using midrange estimates of salt layer thickness (20 nm) of volcanic particles as obtained through leaching experiments. Contours mark 0.2nM DFe enhancement. The dashed line is the cruise track (May 2010). (b) The proportion of the Iceland Basin (assumed to be a region ~1 x 106 km2) receiving DFe inputs from ash (15 April to 23 May) using minimum (solubility 0.042%) and maximum (salt layer coating of 90nm thickness) estimates of Fe content of volcanic particles.

Ryan-Keogh T J, Macey, A.I., Lucas M., Steigenberger, S.S., Stinchcombe, M.C., Achterberg, E.P., Bibby, T.S., Moore, C.M.
Abstract

The high-latitude North Atlantic (HLNA) is characterized by a marked seasonal phytoplankton bloom, which removes the majority of surface macronutrients. However, incomplete nitrate depletion is frequently observed during summer in the region, potentially reflecting the seasonal development of an iron (Fe) limited phytoplankton community. In order to investigate the seasonal development and spatial extent of iron stress in the HLNA, nutrient addition experiments were performed during the spring (May) and late summer (July and August) of 2010. Grow-out experiments (48–120 h) confirmed the potential for iron limitation in the region. Short-term (24 h) incubations further enabled high spatial coverage and mapping of phytoplankton physiological responses to iron addition. The difference in the apparent maximal photochemical yield of photosystem II (PSII) (Fv : Fm) between nutrient (iron) amended and control treatments (Δ(Fv : Fm)) was used as a measure of the relative degree of iron stress. The combined observations indicated variability in the seasonal cycle of iron stress between different regions of the Irminger and Iceland Basins of the HLNA, related to the timing of the annual bloom cycle in contrasting biogeochemical provinces. Phytoplankton iron stress developed during the transition from the prebloom to peak bloom conditions in the HLNA and was more severe for larger cells. Subsequently, iron stress was reduced in regions where macronutrients were depleted following the bloom. Iron availability plays a significant role in the biogeochemistry of the HLNA, potentially lowering the efficiency of one of the strongest biological carbon pumps in the ocean.

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HLNA Fig 8

(a) In situ chlorophyll data (μg L-1) and relative degree of Fe stress (Δ(Fv:Fm)+2.0 Fe), (b) in situ DIN (μmol L-1) data and Δ(Fv:Fm)+2.0 Fe and in situ DIN and different in net chlorophyll growth rate following Fe addition (ΔμChl (d-1)) relative to time of peak of bloom. Superimposed on panel (c) conceptualised model of bloom dynamics, demonstrating two different post-bloom scenarios (low DIN and high DIN) associated with different degrees of Fe stress and iron limited growth rates.

Giddy, I., Swart S., Tagliabue, A.
Abstract

The canonical C/N/P ratio of 106/16/1 in phytoplankton has been instrumental in our understanding of ocean biogeochemical cycles and the development of numerical models as it couples the cycling of C to nutrients. However, this ratio can show marked variability and the processes driving these trends are still uncertain. There are, in particular, two main hypotheses to explain N/P ratios that deviate from 16/1. Firstly, it is postulated that species have specific, yet distinct, ratios that are averaged out over large spatial and temporal scales (Weber and Deutsch, 2010). Alternatively, varying optimal growth strategies resulting from physiological adaptation to environmental conditions could drive N/P variability, which simply averages out as 16/1 under current environmental conditions (Klausmeier et al., 2004). To address these hypotheses, we examine seasonal changes in the NO3- to PO43- ratio (via the geochemical tracer N*) on a section between Cape Town and Antarctica, where macronutrients are not fully depleted. Overall, we find roles for both species composition and physiology in driving the seasonal changes in N* depending on the location. Both mechanisms could act in concert and physiology was generally more important in regions undergoing large changes in phytoplankton biomass. Better understanding the driving mechanisms behind changes in the Southern Ocean N/P ratio is important as its signal is exported to low latitudes, having major impacts on global biogeochemical cycles.

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The concentration of Chl-a (mg.m) for the region of the GH line extracted from Globcolor data are provided for (a) early summer (December 2010) and (b) late summer (February 2011).

The concentration of Chl-a (mg.m) for the region of the GH line extracted from Globcolor data are provided for (a) early summer (December 2010) and (b) late summer (February 2011).

Abstract

Two sets of high-resolution subsurface hydrographic and underway surface chlorophyll a (Chl a) measurements are used, in conjunction with satellite remotely sensed data, to investigate the upper layer oceanography (mesoscale features and mixed layer depth variability) and phytoplankton biomass at the GoodHope line south of Africa, during the 2010–2011 austral summer. The link between physical parameters of the upper ocean, specifically frontal activity, to the spatially varying in situ and satellite measurements of Chl a concentrations is investigated. The observations provide evidence to show that the fronts act to both enhance phytoplankton biomass as well as to delimit regions of similar chlorophyll concentrations, although the front–chlorophyll relationships become obscure towards the end of the growing season due to bloom advection and ‘patchy’ Chl a behaviour. Satellite ocean colour measurements are compared to in situ chlorophyll measurements to assess the disparity between the two sampling techniques. The scientific value of the time-series of oceanographic observations collected at the GoodHope line between 2004 to present is being realised. Continued efforts in this programme are essential to better understand both the physical and biogeochemical dynamics of the upper ocean in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean.

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Relationship between in situ and Globcolour Chl a concentrations at the GH line in December (black) and February (grey). The 1:1 slope is depicted by the grey line.

Relationship between in situ and Globcolour Chl a concentrations at the GH line in December (black) and February (grey). The 1:1
slope is depicted by the grey line.

Abstract

One of the important gaps in the reliable prediction of the response of the Southern Ocean carbon cycle to climate change is its sensitivity to seasonal, subseasonal forcings (in time) and mesoscales (in space). The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observatory (SOCCO), a CSIR-led consortium, is planning the Southern Ocean Seasonal Cycle Experiment (SOSCEx), which will be a new type of large-scale experiment. SOSCEx reflects a shift from the historical focus on ship-based descriptive Southern Ocean oceanography and living resource conservation, to system-scale dynamics studies spanning much greater time and space scales. The experiment provides a new and unprecedented opportunity to gain a better understanding of the links between climate drivers and ecosystem productivity and climate feedbacks in the Southern Ocean. This combined high-resolution approach to both observations and modelling experiments will permit us, for the first time, to address some key questions relating to the physical nature of the Southern Ocean and its carbon cycle.

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A space–time plot showing relative scale magnitudes of a number of platforms (ships, instrumented moorings and gliders), the seasonal cycle and climate projections. This graphical representation emphasises that, even with both ships and moorings observational platforms, it is not possible to address questions on the seasonal cycle sensitivity of climate projections without using autonomous platforms. Ocean gliders are uniquely poised to bridge the spatial and temporal gap between ships and moorings – a bridge which critically covers the seasonal 'window' in the Southern Ocean Seasonal Cycle Experiment.

A space–time plot showing relative scale magnitudes of a number of platforms (ships, instrumented moorings and gliders), the seasonal cycle and climate projections. This graphical representation emphasises that, even with both ships and moorings observational platforms, it is not possible to address questions on the seasonal cycle sensitivity of climate projections without using autonomous platforms. Ocean gliders are uniquely poised to bridge the spatial and temporal gap between ships and moorings – a bridge which critically covers the seasonal ‘window’ in the Southern Ocean Seasonal Cycle Experiment.

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